Polish has a so-called AN structure which means that in general the adjective goes in front of the noun. Polish adjectives for food flavours don’t follow this rule, though. If you still struggle to tell what’s a Polish adjective and what’s an adverb, check out my post “Is It a Polish Adjective or Adverb?“
Today you’ll learn where to place flavour related adjectives and, perhaps more importantly how to form them. It’s a very important language skill and don’t let anyone tell you otherwise. Food…is everything!
Food Flavours: Adjectives Formation
First, you need to know some food names. This isn’t too difficult as all Polish learning books drill food with cases ad nauseam (do wyrzygania!). But enough about that, let’s have a look at some examples:
czekolada – noun: chocolate -> czekoladowy – adjective: chocolaty
truskawka – noun: strawberry -> truskawkowy – adjective: strawberry flavoured or made from strawberries
marchewka – noun: carrot -> marchewkowy – adjective: carrot flavoured or made from carrots
As you see, in general you have to take away the last vowel and we add the ending –owy. In that manner you get a masculine adjective that you can change into an adjective of a different gender. For instance, czekoladowa would be the right for of “chocolaty” for feminine singular nouns (czekoladowa kawa – chocolaty coffee) and czekoladowe for non-masculine plural nouns (czekoladowe lody – chocolate ice-cream).
You may wonder what happens with nouns that don’t end with a vowel. Good question! Here are some examples:
ananas (pineapple) -> ananasowy (pineapple flavoured or made from pineapples)
pomidor (tomato) -> pomidorowy (tomato flavoured or made from tomatoes)
jabłko (apple) -> jabłkowy (apple flavoured or made from apples)
As you can see, the ones that end with a consonant simply get the ending –owy. The ones that finish with an –o (so neuter nouns), effectively get the ending –wy.
Food Flavours: Exceptions
Of course, where there are rules, there are also exceptions. Here’s the list of notable food related adjectives that don’t like to play by the rules:
- kapusta (cabbage) – kapuściany
- ziemniak (potato) – ziemniaczany
- ogórek (cucumber) – ogórkowy
- mięso (meat) – mięsny
- burak (beetroot) – buraczany
- kukurydza (corn) – kukurydziany
- kiwi (kiwi) – o smaku kiwi (kiwi flavoured) and z kiwi (with/from kiwi)
- awokado (avocado) – o smaku awokado (avocado flavoured) and z awokado (with/from avocado)
Food Flavours: Placement
Food flavours are placed after the noun, which makes them different to most Polish adjectives. In some very rare cases you could insert such adjective before the noun for emphasis but you’d have to have a very good reason to do so. In general we say:
ciasto marchewkowe – carrot cake
lody truskawkowe – strawberry ice-cream
sok pomarańczowy – orange juice
This rule applies to adjectives that come from food related nouns. This doesn’t mean that other adjectives describing nouns behave in the same way.
Check Your Understanding
You think you get it? I hope so! Just to be sure here are two simple exercises to check it:
1. Create adjectives from the following food related nouns: malina (raspberry), kokos (coconut) and winogrono (grape).
2. Describe the following nouns with the created adjectives: lizak (lollipop), napój (beverage) and polewa (sauce or icing).
Here’s an example with the words banan (banana) and ciasto (cake):
ciasto bananowe (banana cake)
You can write your answers in the comments’ section and I’ll let you know whether they’re correct! Det är allt för idag 🙂 Nitakuona karibuni!