Polish Adjectives: Food Flavours 2

Last week we explored the world of Polish adjectives describing flavours and based on food names. For more info on basic adjectives related to food flavours click on the link. Today I’ll focus on something a bit more advanced: food items with more than one flavour.
Two-flavoured food items require the use of both adverbs and adjectives. Make sure you know the answer to the question: Is It a Polish Adjective or a Polish Adverb? before you go ahead with reading this blog post.

Double Trouble Flavours

You already know how to say vanilla (waniliowy) and chocolate (czekoladowy) in Polish. Now it’s time to learn what to do if the ice-cream you want combines both flavours.
The rule of thumb here is that we choose whatever sounds better when choosing which word should go first. In the case of vanilla-chocolate we would use vanilla first.
The first adjective changes into an adverb. It kind of makes sense because it describes the second adjective (which is what adverbs do!).

waniliowy (adjective) -> waniliowo (adverb)

Then you add a hyphen and the second adjective and get: waniliowo-czekoladowy. This is a masculine singular noun. Of course, it’ll undergo the usual changes:

rożek (m) waniliowo-czekoladowy – “a vanilla and chocolate cone”

babka (f sing) waniliowo-czekoladowa – “a vanilla and chocolate babka

lody (pl) waniliowo-czekoladowe – “vanilla and chocolate ice-cream”

Note that the first part doesn’t change because adverbs always keep the same form. Some other examples of such food are:

smoothie truskawkowo-pomarańczowy – “strawberry and orange smoothie”

ciasto kawowo-śmietankowe – “coffee and cream cake”

napój marchewkowo-brzoskwiniowy – “carrot and peach beverage”

The same formation rules apply to colors. For instance, you’d say:

Miała na sobie czarno-czerwony sweter. – “She wore a black and red pullover.”

Check Your Understanding

I hope that this explanation has helped you and now you know how to form these adjectives. I can’t trust you, though! Here’s your test:

nut (orzech) and chocolate (czekolada) cookies (ciastka)

lemon (cytryna) and raspberry (malina) lemoniada (lemonade)

apple (jabłko) and mint (mięta) juice (sok)


Let me know in the comment’s section what your answers are 🙂 Grazie di aver letto il mio post! 我与你稍后再见!

Polish Adjectives: Food Flavours

Polish has a so-called AN structure which means that in general the adjective goes in front of the noun. Polish adjectives for food flavours don’t follow this rule, though. If you still struggle to tell what’s a Polish adjective and what’s an adverb, check out my post “Is It a Polish Adjective or Adverb?
Today you’ll learn where to place flavour related adjectives and, perhaps more importantly how to form them. It’s a very important language skill and don’t let anyone tell you otherwise. Food…is everything!

Food Flavours: Adjectives Formation

First, you need to know some food names. This isn’t too difficult as all Polish learning books drill food with cases ad nauseam (do wyrzygania!). But enough about that, let’s have a look at some examples:

czekolada – noun: chocolate -> czekoladowy – adjective: chocolaty

truskawka – noun: strawberry -> truskawkowy – adjective: strawberry flavoured or made from strawberries

marchewka – noun: carrot -> marchewkowy – adjective: carrot flavoured or made from carrots

As you see, in general you have to take away the last vowel and we add the ending –owy. In that manner you get a masculine adjective that you can change into an adjective of a different gender. For instance, czekoladowa would be the right for of “chocolaty” for feminine singular nouns (czekoladowa kawa – chocolaty coffee) and czekoladowe for non-masculine plural nouns (czekoladowe lody – chocolate ice-cream).

You may wonder what happens with nouns that don’t end with a vowel. Good question! Here are some examples:

ananas (pineapple) -> ananasowy (pineapple flavoured or made from pineapples)

pomidor (tomato) -> pomidorowy (tomato flavoured or made from tomatoes)

jabłko (apple) -> jabłkowy (apple flavoured or made from apples)

As you can see, the ones that end with a consonant simply get the ending –owy. The ones that finish with an –o (so neuter nouns), effectively get the ending –wy.

Food Flavours: Exceptions

Of course, where there are rules, there are also exceptions. Here’s the list of notable food related adjectives that don’t like to play by the rules:

  • kapusta (cabbage) – kapuściany
  • ziemniak (potato) – ziemniaczany
  • ogórek (cucumber) – ogórkowy
  • mięso (meat) – mięsny
  • burak (beetroot) – buraczany
  • kukurydza (corn) – kukurydziany
  • kiwi (kiwi) – o smaku kiwi (kiwi flavoured) and z kiwi (with/from kiwi)
  • awokado (avocado) – o smaku awokado (avocado flavoured) and z awokado (with/from avocado)

Food Flavours: Placement

Food flavours are placed after the noun, which makes them different to most Polish adjectives. In some very rare cases you could insert such adjective before the noun for emphasis but you’d have to have a very good reason to do so. In general we say:

ciasto marchewkowe – carrot cake

lody truskawkowe – strawberry ice-cream

sok pomarańczowy – orange juice

This rule applies to adjectives that come from food related nouns. This doesn’t mean that other adjectives describing nouns behave in the same way.

Check Your Understanding

You think you get it? I hope so! Just to be sure here are two simple exercises to check it:

1. Create adjectives from the following food related nouns: malina (raspberry), kokos (coconut) and winogrono (grape).

2. Describe the following nouns with the created adjectives: lizak (lollipop), napój (beverage) and polewa (sauce or icing).

Here’s an example with the words banan (banana) and ciasto (cake):

bananowy (adjective)

ciasto bananowe (banana cake)

You can write your answers in the comments’ section and I’ll let you know whether they’re correct! Det är allt för idag 🙂 Nitakuona karibuni!

Is it a Polish Adjective or a Polish Adverb? Przysłówki and przymiotniki.

One of the areas that cause problems to students is the distinction between adjectives and adverbs in Polish. Occasionally, Polish adverbs align with English adverbs in meaning but it’s not always the case. Hopefully, this article will help you with whatever doubts you may have with the topic.

Polish Adjectives

Polish adjectives undergo declension, which means that they change their form depending on the gender of the noun they describe and the case required. That’s why we say:

To jest inteligentna kobieta.

but

Nie widzę inteligentnego mężczyzny.

You can learn more about Polish adjectives here (and if you can’t click on it, it means I haven’t written this post yet ;)).
The most important things for you to remember today is that adjectives describe nouns and undergo declension.

Polish Adverbs

Good news, folks! Polish adverbs, unlike adjectives, always keep the same form. They describe verbs and often finish with an -o (eg. wolno – “slow”) or and -(i)e (eg pięknie – beautifully). Such adverbs are usually formed from the singular masculine form of an adjective (in the case of examples provided: wolny and piękny).
There are also some irregular adverbs that are easier recognized by their meaning and role. Good examples of such adverbs are wczoraj (“yesterday”), wtedy (“then”) and tam (“there”).

Polish Adjectives vs Polish Adverbs

How to tell the difference between a Polish adjective and a Polish adverb? Sometimes it’s quite easy:

Paweł jest kreatywny. – “Paweł is creative.”

Who is creative? Paweł. It’s pretty clear here that the adjective kreatywny describes the proper noun Paweł.

Paweł myśli kreatywnie. – “Paweł thinks creatively.”

We can’t ask a question about Paweł in this sentence, but we can ask about Paweł‘s thinking. How does Paweł think? Creatively. Here we’re dealing with an adverb kreatywnie describing a verb.

Many cases are straightforward. Verbs are described by adverbs, while nouns by adjectives. The end of the article… NOT.

Things Get Tricky

Unfortunately, Polish sometimes requires an adverb, when English would use an adjective. Here’s a number of more challenging examples:

Jest zimno. – “It’s cold.”

When you speak about the weather or outside conditions you often should use adverbs in Polish. Note that this isn’t an exception, even if the choice of adverb here may not sound natural to you. You could ask a following question:

How is it (outside)? It’s cold!

The “it” here, present in English and implied in Polish is a dummy subject. There’s no “it”, to really speak about (no person nor object) and if you look at the Polish sentence it literally translates into “Is (=Jest) cold (=zimno)“. What’s the conclusion? The adverb still describes a verb. Compare it with the sentence below:

Dziś jest piękna pogoda. – “The weather today is beautiful.”

In this sentence, we describe the noun “weather” (pogoda), hence the use of an adjective beautiful (piękna).

Another good example is when you talk about how someone looks like. In Polish you would say: Ania wygląda młodo. (“Ania looks young.”) using an adverb. Yet again, the adverb describes the verb here. Namely, the way she looks like.

You’d also use adverbs to speak about how you feel:

Czuję się świetnie! – “I feel great.”

Źle się czuję! – “I don’t feel well.”

Last but not least, here are some examples that are predictable based on both the rule provided and your intuition of an English speaker once you think about them:

Poproszę duże/małe piwo. – “A large/small beer, please.”

Piję dużo/mało piwa. – “I drink a lot of/little beer.”

Summary

Adjectives describe nouns. Adverbs describe verbs. If in doubt, form questions to see which part of the sentence a given word should describe. For some more help with a related problem area, have a look at one of my posts to help you see the difference between two adverbs, bardzo (very) and dużo (a lot).
Remember, practice makes perfect or as close to perfect as you can reasonably expect to get!

Check Your Understanding

Here’s a short exercise for you to check whether you understand the difference between adverbs and adjectives in Polish. Change the form of the provided adjective as required, either into an adverb or an adjective in the appropriate form:

1. On jeździ ______________ . (szybki). – “He drives fast.”

2. Jesteśmy _________ . (miły). – “We are nice.”

3. Czytam _________ (duży) i ______________ (szybki). – “I read a lot and (I read) fast.”

4. ___________ (miły) mi cię poznać! – “It’s nice to meet you.”

5. Ten pies jest _________ (stary), ale wygląda __________ (młody). – “This dog is old but it looks young.”

6. _________ (piękny) śpiewa! – “(He/She) sings beautifully.”

7. Ten film nie jest __________ (dobry), ____________ (zły) się go ogląda. – “This movie isn’t good, it’s not easy to watch (literally: it watches badly.).”

8. Ufff, ale ____________ (gorący)! – “Ufff, it’s so hot!”

9. Anna jest ___________ (dorosły), ale zachowuje się ____________ (dziecinny). – “Anna is an adult but she behaves like a child.”

10. Zwykle nie piję ___________ (duży), ale zamówię kolejne _____________ (duży) piwo. – “I usually don’t drink a lot, but I’ll order one more large beer.

Would you like to know how you’ve done? Give me your answers in the comments section and I’ll tell you 🙂 Totsiens!