“To jest…” Structure in Polish

Ask learners of Polish what’s the worst thing about the language and they’ll tell you it’s the Polish cases. That’s the reason why it’s nice to have some tricks up your sleeve. One of them is the use of the To jest… (“This is…”) structure that requires the nominative case mianownik, instead of the locative case narzędnik usually required by the verb być (“to be”).

Co to jest? – What is it?

This construction can be used in many situations such as:

  • Presenting people

    To (jest) moja żona. – “This is my wife.”
  • Expressing feelings

    To (jest) okropne! – “It’s horrible!”

    To (jest) naprawdę ekstra! – “It’s really cool!”
  • Indicating things

    To (jest) komputer. – “This is a computer.”

What’s So Cool About It?

The cool thing about this construction is that it requires the nominative case, which means the standard form you get in a dictionary. Compare the two sentences below:

1. To (jest) wysoki mężczyzna. – “This is a tall man.”


2. On jest wysokim mężczyzną. – “He’s a tall man.”

Locative 😦

Note that if there’s no noun to describe the adjective remains in the nominative:

3. On jest wysoki. – “He’s tall.”

These two sentences as well as similar one that you could create are interchangeable in most contexts.

Don’t Get Confused

The verb być “to be” triggers the need for the locative case. However, “jest” is only optional in sentences in the “to jest” structure. It may be easier for you to imagine it’s not there or simply omit it in the beginning. That’s why I put it in brackets in the sentences above. Yet again, it’s also totally acceptable to drop the verb and say:

4. To wysoki mężczyzna. – “This (is) a tall man.”

Nevertheless, “to jest” requires a noun. You can’t use it with an adjective only. No need to get greedy with omissions:

5. To (jest) wysoki [add a noun]. – “This is a tall [you see, you do need that noun]”

Let’s have one more example to make it even more clear:

1. To (jest) niska kobieta. – “This is a short woman.”

To jest + nominative. No funny business.

2. Ona jest niską kobietą. – “She’s a short woman.”

A typical sentence when the verb “to be” (być) triggers the locative case, narzędnik.

3. Ona jest niska. – “She’s short.”

No noun, the adjective stays in nominative.

4. To niska kobieta. – “This (is) a short woman.”

Just a reminder that you can omit the “jest”.

5. To (jest) niska [add a noun]. – “This is a short [again, you really do need that noun]”

No noun, no sentence with this structure, sorry.

Your Turn! – Tocca a Te!

Rather than give you an exercise, today I invite you to try to make your own sentences in the comments section. Questions and doubts welcome too. Cheerio!